Petrified wood is the name given to wood that has been turned into stone (fossilized) through the process of permineralization. All of the organic matter becomes replaced by minerals, while much of the original structure such as tree rings in retained. The color is due to the different minerals that replace the original wood structure, for examples iron creates reds and oranges. The area around Ambilobe, Madagascar is extensively mined for very colorful petrified wood that was deposited during the Triassic period, approximately 220 million years ago. Nearly all of this wood is from the Araucaria, a type of conifer commonly referred to as the Monkey Puzzle Tree.